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M ETALLI C 



J W 21936 



ZINC POWDER 

INDUSTRIAL PAINT 




The New Jersey Zinc Company 



COPYRIGHT, 1 ( >2 ( > 
THE NEW JERSEY ZINC COMPANY 

M w MJRK. X. Y. 



METALLIC 

ZINC POWDER 

IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 




THE NEW JERSEY ZINC COMPANY 
160 Front Street New York C.ty 



METALLIC ZINC POWDER 




IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 



METALLIC ZINC POWDER IN 
INDUSTRIAL PAINT 

IN [TS constant search for economies and it- battle against rust, industry 
has made man) tests with rust-preventive coatings. With each ne\* de- 
velopmenl in industrial building, metal primers become economically more 
and more important. 

Certain advantages over other types of paints, formulated for industrial 
finishes are shown h\ paints containing Metallic Zinc Powder (or -<» called 
Zinc Dust), especially in combination with Zinc < Kid* 1 Metallic Zinc Powder 
is a gray pignu nt distilled in furnaces especially designed and operated for its 
production. ) The>e ad\ antai:*-- are •- 1 1* ■••iirj-im: the adoption of the-e paint- 
in the interests of lower planl maintenance costs. For priming and finishing 
iron and >teel liotli structural and machine), for galvanized metal and 
sheet zinc, and for other important, but less common uses, such [taints are 
-i\ iii» performance of high efficient \ 

I hi- performance is due primarily to the following qualities: 

1. Rust inhihitive [tower- of Metallic Zinc Powder: 

2. Distensibilit) of the [taint film: 

3. Fine adhering qualities (especially on steel and galvanized iron : 
1. High hiding power: 

5. Ease of application. 

The application of main thousand- <•! gallon- h\ hrndi and *pra\ [taint- 
ing in all parts of the United States and western Europe, as well as the 
usual panel tests, show results that warrant careful consideration of the u-e 
of this paint bv all those who are responsible for reducing plant upkeep. 

HISTORY 

The earliest know n referem e> to the u>e of Zinc Dust in [taint date back 
to 1840. when it was used in western Europe to prote< I iron. Later authors 
refer to the great hiding [tower of paint made on thi> gra\ ba>e and it- mic- 
cessful use as a rust inhibitor; and recommend it- use on machinery, sheel 
iron, roofs, et cetera. Today, paint of this type has an excellent reputation 
on the continent, where it is known as Zinc Gray." In the industrial dis- 
tricts of France, Belgium and western Germany Zinc Dust base [taints have 
lone been widely used for preserving metal surfaces in industrial plants. 

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METALLIC ZINC POWDER 



Apparently the earliest reference to the use of Metallic Zinc Powder m 
anti -corrosive paint in America was b) Benrj Williams in MM 1. when he 
l< ribed the development of the Norfolk ship-bottom paint, n<>» known as 
Vin\ Department Formula 14. In 1913 report- were made on other tests 
where plates had been exposed outdoors foi two years and under watei foi 
another year. At the end of these tests the plates painted with Zinc Duel 
were found in much the besl condition. These report6 stimulated an inter- 
est in the possible use of (his riist-inhihitive paint in many different field- in 
this country, and the resull "I m or« intensive investigation indicates (hat 
a combination of Zinc Oxide ivith Zin< Dusl yields ., paint thai offers an 
unusual degree of protection. 







B 



J IGl iu 2 

Photomicrographs illustrating Lhe plastic properties of a Zinc Dust Zim Oxide Painl 
film aft for one ><;ii on the south side of a building 

1" Showing typical cut in a plastic material 
"B" Paint film molded back into place and cut practically healed rh 
were practically invisible to tin- naked i 



ZINC DUST PAINT MEETS THE REQUISITES 
OF A METAL PRIMER 

Anyone accustomed to examining painl him- that bav< been weathered 
will find a great appeal in the wa] Zim Duel paints retain their distensible 
property of tin first n quisib - of a paim foi metab is its ability to 

* Kpand and contract at different temperatures. I In- qua lit 3 1- graphic all) 
illustrated (Figure 2 b) the phot iphe a and b ofaZin< Dust- 

/m« I »\nl. Paint film terviee on the < • with sid< • 

den Btrui I nal cut a is t) pi< al of an) - ut in a pUsti< 

rig of t h < ed ges is re vealed e ven undei 
the 1 - bo* the paint 1 an I- pn --• d ba< k into 

place and the 1 ut |-r.i< tn all) hi aled by molding ih< plasti< paint. 



IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 



Even after a relatively severe exposure to ultra-violet light, there is less 
than normal indication of a breakdown of these distensive properties of the 
film. Also, observation ami tests show that changes in the relative humidity 
of the surrounding atmosphere have a relatively slight effect on these paints 
as compared with other standard metal priming paints. In spite of the plas- 
tic nature of a properly formulated Zinc Dust paint film (such as a Zinc 
Dust-Zinc Oxide Paint) and its very slight chalking tendencies, it dries to a 
linn film that hold- it- color. sheds dirt wr\ well, and does not crack upon 
exposure. 

The advantage of a Zinc Dust paint as a metal primer is increased by the 
fact that it makes an exceptionally fine base when it i- desired to applv ordi- 
nary finish coat paints. Tests, however, have shown conclusively that a 
paint which can be used in two or more coats (both as primer and finish 
coat) is far superior to any combination of two different paints. And one of 
the most valuable features of a Zinc Dust paint is the fact that it serves 
equally well as primer or finish coat. 

ZINC DUST PAINTS ARE RUST INHIBITIVE 

The Kesearch Division of The New Jersev Zinc Company has made fre- 
quent inspections and careful studies of many panels, industrial buildings 
and steel structures painted with Zinc Dust paints. These observations sup- 
plement and clarify the results obtained by many industrial concern;-, 
public utilities, oil refiners, etc.. through the use of this paint under various 
climatic and industrial conditions. The result- of these te-ts haw con- 
sistently shown the superior rust Lohibitive qualities of Zinc Dust Paints, 
and particularly of paint- pigmented with combinations of Zinc Dust and 
Zinc Oxide. 

Three representative panels are shown in Figure 3 after \ l /2 years' ex- 
posure at 45 degree angle facing south. Panel 2 is obviously in a much 
better condition after this exposure than Panels 1 and 3 which have been 
painted with two popular types of metal priming paints. 

Figure 4 contrasts the effect of two years of exposure on panels painted 
with Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide Paint, and a fourth type of paint recently much 
advocated for coating metal. 

Test- were also made on the interiors of open outdoor water tanks which 
are subject to freezing temperatures in winter and rising and lowering water 
levels. Figure 5 indicates how much better the Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide Paint 
h;i- survived this treatment than the other high-grade metal priming paint 

7 



METALLIC ZINC POWDER 



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METALLIC ZINC POWDER 




Figure 6. A transmission tower painted with 
Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide Paint 

previously used on this type of work. The photograph was made after 2]/ 2 
>rar- -.1 -h-v m ,-. \t prr-rnt the superiorit> of the Metallic Zinc Powder is 
even more evident. 

Thus, it is well proven by experience that Zinc Dual Paint is nisi inhibi- 

14 



IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 



the — why, remains to be determined. One theory that has been suggested 
is that the characteristics of zinc, which are so effective in good galvanizing, 

are also effect i\r when Metallic Zine Powder is used in paint as a pigment 
and applied to iron. 

Lahorain! \ -upport o| tin- theorv that Zine Dust is desirable material to 
have next to a metal surface may in a measure be found in the following 
observation. Clean, bright pieces of steel were embedded to a depth of 
approximately one-eighth inch in each of the following drj pigments: 

Graphite Red Lead 

Lead Ghroniate Blue Lead 

Zine Dust Iron Oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

Uuminum Powder Magnetic Iron Oxide (FeaOJ 

The glass dishes with their contents were exposed to a saturated atmos- 
phere at a temperature of about 1 10 degrees Fahr. for one week. A highly 
ozonized atmosphere also prevailed in the exposure cabinet for one hour 
each day during the exposure period. \\ hen examined after the experiment. 
the bright shiny surface had disappeared from all except the two specimens 
embedded in Zinc Dust and Lead Chromate: both of these specimens were 
untarnished b\ corrosion. The remaining six samples were all corroded to 
about the same degree and little difference could be noted between them. 

WHY ZINC OXIDE IS ADDED IN ZINC DUST PAINTS 

The addition of Zinc Oxide in limited amounts (5 to 25%) to a Zinc 
Dust paint improves its quality because the finer particle size of the Zinc 
Oxide supplements the Zinc Dust in making a denser and more impervious 
film. Zinc Oxide, by forming zinc soaps with the oil. also helps hold the 
heavier Zinc Dust in suspension, prevents settling and thus eliminates the 
necessity of much stirring during application. 

As is well-known, Zinc Oxide also possesses definite rust inhibitive quali- 
ties and. to this extent, it reinforces the rust inhibiti\ e qua lit \ of the paint. 

USE OF ZINC DUST WITH OTHER PIGMENT 
COMBINATIONS 

Investigations have shown that the rust resisting qualities of other metal 
protective paints can be improved by adding Zinc Dust, the improvement 
generallv being quite marked whenever the proportion of Zinc Dust 

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METALLIC ZINC POWDER 




Figi mi 7. \n industrial water tank painted inside and out with Zinc 
Dust-/ 

amounts to al l«*a>t 509? ' ,v weighl oi the total pigment. For example, 
the well-known and recognized metal pruning painl combination, consist- 
ing of Iron Oxide with Zinc Oxide, produces very superioi results when 
modified to contain 50% or more l.\ weight) oi Zinc I >ust in combination 

with the Iron Oxide and Zinc Oxide 

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IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 




Figure 8. Spraying Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide Painl on a highway bridge 



THE HIDING POWER OF ZINC DUST PAINTS 
One ordinary coat of a properly thinned Zinc Dust paint ran be de- 
pended on to obscure entirely a background of any color with an attracth e 
"battleship gray" finish. Zinc Dust, since it consists almost entirely of me- 
tallic zinc, is wholly opaque to ordinary light. Even when considerable 
amounts of other pigments have been added, one ordinary coal i- sufficient 
to cover solidly. 

ZINC DUST PAINTS ARE UNEXCELLED FOR PRIMING AND 
FINISHING GALVANIZED IRON AND SHEET ZINC 

The experimental evidence is tbat the necessity of etching Zinc -urfaces 
by chemical method^ is questionable where a paint made up with a com- 
bination of Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide is used, providing the surface is clean 
and dr\ i. Thi> dor* not refer to mechanical roughening of the >urface a- 
light sand-blasting — which in all cases has produced adherence superior t<» 
that obtained on untreated or chemicallv etched surfa* 

Where a waiting period is not objectionable, a ninet) day weathering 
period will dissipate any oil or grease adhering to the sheel zinc or the 

i: 



METALLIC ZINC POWDER 




Ik, i iu 9 

Typical industrial job sprayed with Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide Paint (See Figure No. 1<> 

I Appearance i- similar to that of galvanized metal.) 




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Close-up photograph of transformers in Figure <> showing the clean appearance of the 
paint after one year of exposure in a dust) section of an industrial plant 

18 



IN INDUSTRIAL PAINT 



galvanized surfaces, thus removing any possible cause of trouble. This 
exposure liken i-e roughen- tin- sheets to some extent, ami i- a rheaper and 
quite as satisfactory method of obtaining paint adherence as the average 
chemical etching treatment. 

There is no question but that the prime factor entering into the adhesion 
of paint to galvanized iron or sheet zinc is the natural sticking qualities a 
paint has for such surfaces. Performance has shown that Zinc Dust-Zinc 
Oxide Paint has this property to a much greater degree than other com- 
monly used metal priming paints. 

SPRAY APPLICATION 

No special manipulations are required in applying properh prepared 
Zinc Dust paints by the spray method. At the usual pressure for industrial 
painting (60 to 75 pounds per square inch), such pain I- may ordinarily he 
used as prepared for brush application. \t lower air pre«ure. -onie thinning 
may be necessary, but no fear need be experienced that the paint may not 
hide, since the opacity of the paint is very great. 

On repaint work, where the old paint is in a fair state of prescrv ation, one 
coat uniformly applied by spraying is considered adequate, if any pre- 
viously bare spots have been touched up with priming [taint. Figure ti illus- 
trates the use of a spray gun in the application of Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide 
Paint on a highway bridge. 

ZINC DUST PAINTS HAVE A WIDE RANGE OF USES 

\ few -rm-ral and -perilie u-e- for Zinc I )u-t paint- ma\ be mentioned 
for example: 

Iron and steel surfaces demand a paint that \ ield- a non-porous, distensi- 
ble film capable of expanding and contracting with the metals, and it must 
be an efficient ru^t inhibitor. Properly formulated Zinc Dust paints fulfill 
these requirements to the greatest degree. 

Zinc Dust paints have been found particularly useful on galvanized metal 
and sheet zinc where adherence depends on the retention by the oil in the 
film of its plastic and distensible properties. 

The present method of erecting galvanized fence and railings is such 
that often the zinc coating is cut from the iron. For example, this inv ariably 
occurs where pipe joints ha\e to be rethreaded. A Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide 
linseed oil paste thinned with a small amount of liquid oil drier and possi- 

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METALLIC ZINC POWDER 



bly a little linseed oil, if the mix i- too heavy, placed on the abraded places 
insures thorough protection against corrosion and avoids the marked color 
contrasts that naturally result from the use of any other really high-grade, 
rust-resisting paint. 

Zinc Dust-Zinc Oxide imparts a new galvanized appearance to screens 
and protects them from corrosion. Tin* paint adhere- tightly to black iron, 
galvanized or copper screens and prevents the formation of discolored areas 
so often observed under screened windows. 

Zinc Dust incorporated in a quick drying vehicle yielding a hard abrasive- 
resistant film admirably adapts itself as a shop coating material for metal. 

Where it i> desired to apply a temporary metal protective coating which 
may he easilv removed. Zinc Dust alone or mixed with other pigments, such 
as Zinc Oxide, in a non-drying vehicle has found a wide field of usefulness. 

Zinc Dust mixed in a special non-drying vehicle has been widely used for 
lubricating threads and preventing leakv connection-. Tin- material mav be 
kept imlehnitelv without becoming hard, thus eliminating the nece*>itv l<>i 
making a fresh mix for each individual job. 

The interiors of industrial water tanks is another application on which 
such a paint has proven exceptionally successful. Figure 5 shows the results 
of a tesl which was run on the interior wall of such a tank. 

The above will undoubted!) -uggest other uses to the man who must 
always be alert to new ways of cutting down the maintenance costs. The 
New Jer-ev Zinc Company ha> cooperated with inanv paint manufacturer* 
in investigating the suitability oi this type oi paint to special job-. I li» 
qualities which make it especially advantageous to many special applica- 
tions are no longer a matter of conjecture, but are proven facts. 



20 



fev/Jers< 

zinc 



The World's Standard for Zinc Products